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Pavilion shooting

Under the pavilion photography refers to taking pictures in the room in which artificial used, most electric lighting. The number and capacity of these sources of light should correspond to the amount of light necessary to obtain a high quality image. Different types of lighting, which are mentioned above, are used and the conditions of the pavilion shooting. In accordance with regulated intensity of lighting fixtures, their placement, which allows to solve problems of composition, getting different lighting effects.

The main role in the formation of objects plays the main light, revealing their sculptural and volumetric plasticity. Skillfully using such light, the photographer can focus on the important elements of the composition and leave in the shade a minor. The relationship between light and shadow, i.e. the creation of light balance is also determined by the source power draw lightning that is created when artificial lighting devices direct light.
If the shade created by drawing with light, does not carry the decorative element or meaning, they can be lighting up a fill light. It is created by ambient light sources and with other types of lighting first and foremost a modeling light, determines the degree of contrast of the image. Fill-in light evenly illuminates the subject and the room, creates a level of illumination necessary to satisfactorily work out the details, and visible shadows creates.
Modeling light function carries an additional fill light (illuminated shadows) that uses weak instruments scattered light. The lower modeling light softens, softens harsh shadows from your main (drawing) of the upper light source. The modeling light can emphasize the plasticity of the volumes, creating them the game flare and reflexes, i.e., local reflections from various surfaces and surrounding objects, their shape, color and intensity can be adjusted. Background light is used for illumination of the background, which usually apply the instrument scattered light. The light creates a contour around the object light path. This circuit should be brighter than bright the lit part of the object and part of the background on which it is projected. The contour light can be an expressive part of the composition. Spectacular light creates on the elements of photocomposition reflections and shadows given shape, color and intensity, as a rule, reproducing the effect of potent light source, located on the borders of the frame.
The alignment light illuminates the shadow side of the subject and never creates a shadow on the areas lit by main directional or drawing with light.
When shooting almost never uses all types of lighting at the same time, only two or three.

Working with artificial light, the photographer should keep in mind four characteristics of illumination: 1) illumination of the subject and the entire space; 2) contrast lighting; 3) direction and size of shadows, i.e., shaded, portions of the surface of the subject; 4) the spectral composition (color) of light falling on the surface of the subject.
Speaking of light and contrast, you must be aware of the peculiarities of visual perception, which is important for not only the amount of light, but the ratio of the brightness of individual sections of the actual scene. Eye perceives brightness, if they differ from one another by at least 10 %. Therefore, to reproduce the visible man black and white gradation is necessary to produce exponometru lit and shadow areas, bearing in mind the possibilities of the film, which is removed. Then the image will correspond to the actually existing svetovalnica pattern. Need to learn how to use the direction of light and shadows.
Possible countless variants of illumination by artificial light sources from thin air, shadowless, created sources for fill and modeling lights, to the black contrast black and white images taken with just one light drawing. It should be remembered that the shadow, like light, can be the most expressive element of the composition. Its contours, tone saturation, the location in space of the frame should be taken into consideration in the placement of accents, and when you reach the aesthetic perfection of a photograph. If the background is flat and not a more semantic focus of the composition, if the lighting is not assigned specific tasks, and typically use only a fill light. But it is necessary to strive to ensure that background or at least part of it was darker or lighter scene. Silhouette of your subject or person can be singled out by light or shadow outline to object is not merged with the background. If the background is complicated, it can be covered almost all types of light.

With directional light sources to create expressive black and white drawing. Soft, transparent shadow will make the drama of the picture less conflict.
Pronounced chiaroscuro, where some objects or parts of objects immersed in shadow, while others, conversely, brightly lit, will make the composition of the frame elements of the dramatic tension and make scenes more expressive. Cleverly using contrasts of light and shade, you can get quite different effects from the picturesque richness to the hard sharpness of the picture poster. High contrast should always be justified by the compositional idea. If, however, aesthetic or ethical sense of the image requires sharp contrasts, very high contrast should be avoided. It is necessary to consider not only the direction but also light gradation of light and shade, especially in the case when the task of the photographer is the texture and details of your subject, in the correct delineation of his three-dimensional forms. The balance between light and shade can be controlled by illumination shadows using reflective surfaces or poor lighting ambient light. When working with color it is important to obtain such coverage in the shadow part of the image, which would have been transferred to color in the shadows.

When the image on color film in the General notion of contrast is the color contrast. By this is meant the combination of both main and additional colors. It is important to take into account the colour of the light falling on the subject. As already mentioned, to create a certain type of lighting, you need to choose the right for this lighting and to properly set them. The universal circuit of light installations for all types of shooting can not be, because the choice of lighting is dictated by the individual creative intent of the photographer and various plastic characteristics of the displayed objects. Therefore, we present only a General scheme, which must vary in each individual case. When choosing lighting for portraits, you need to remember that each person has their plastic features, which should be clearly identified. It is also desirable to highlight the eyes and emphasize the texture of the skin. The background color should not contrast sharply with the color of a person unless such a contrast is not provided specifically artistic photo. Bright colors and complex patterns can distract the viewer from the face. In the work on multi-figure compositions and group portraits to the people is necessary so that they do not obstruct each other and were somehow linked. It is desirable to emphasize the nature of their relationship.
Still life requires a closed composition. So at the start of his photography, space frame should be limited, to focus the viewer's attention on the objects, each of which must bear a certain semantic accent. For this we need to arrange the background, which will serve as a barrier to our sight. This background can serve as part of the wall, bounded within specified limits, or the screen. It should be remembered that the background is part of the composition. It can be decorated in the same style with still life or, on the contrary, to be neutral, to emphasize the aesthetic value of objects. The dimensions of the background are determined by the relative sizes of objects.
The composition of the still life should be based on the balance of its individual parts and the balance of space and their existing items. As a rule, the main semantic load is carried by one or two main subjects, which are necessarily opposed to each other. The remaining items are placed so that, first, to direct the viewer's attention on the compositional and semantic center, and secondly, to balance all parts of the production. Under these rules of still life will be perceived as a harmonious composite whole.
The placement of objects in space relative to foreground and background can be completely arbitrary, since it depends on the aesthetic content of the photograph. One of the main tasks of a photographer at work on a still life is a texture, which in itself carries a great aesthetic charge and thereby increases the artistic quality of the image. Lighting is selected depending on the structure of surfaces, i.e. texture, which depends on the nature of the reflection incident on this surface light.
Matte surfaces reflect light equally in all directions (diffuse reflection). Directional light incident on a matte surface, is reflected from it in the form of soft ambient light; the surface thus seems to be evenly and brightly lit. When shooting matte textures need a precise dosage of light and precise exposure calculation. When there is too much light or overexposure matte texture in the picture completely disappear and the illuminated surface becomes "clogged" light. In this case you lose the plastic surround forms the object in the picture becomes flat and the image is flat. The glossy surface reflects the light and diffuse and angle, depending on the angle of incidence of light. So on a glossy surface glare, especially on the convex parts.
The mirror surface is characterized only by the directional reflection of the incident light. A particular challenge for the photographer is photographing subjects from glass because glass is difficult to simulate shadow. Direct light passes through it, leaving behind a reflection, blogoverse on the form and pattern glass object. Thus, there remains only a light surface behind a glass object, whose dimensions depend on the density of the glass. Despite this, the glass gives you the ability to create a sleek, linear and tonal compositions, it is only necessary to properly use lighting. When photographing glass objects is mandatory backlight, but it is desirable that it was not a directional light, and ambient, they can serve as a sun light coming from the window, and the side light, creating glare, or some glare on the glass surface. All that was said about the technique of shooting still life, applies to shooting products and crafts. Especially careful choice of lighting require objects of silver and gold.

Shooting under reproduction refers to the reproduction of the photographic method of various flat-originals—paintings, prints, drawings, etc.. the Originals can vary in technique and therefore the requirements for their reproduction varies. Reproduction can be made in 1:1 scale, with increases and decreases. Such a survey is best done with large-format camera with dual bellows stretching, but maybe the reproduction and even a small medium format camera.
For shooting small originals when you want an expansion in the scale, you must use a retractable rim of the lens, extension rings, tubes and special consoles installed between the lens and the camera or a photographic enlarger. When shooting with the camera has not adapted to changing lenses, use the positive attachment of lenses forming the optical system, the focal length of which is less than the flange back of the camera, which allows to significantly increase the scale. Each attachment lens and each of the extension ring corresponds to the scale of shooting and your subject distance. Extension rings practically do not impair the quality of the image, while Packed lenses are not considered in the calculation of the lens, reducing the sharpness and geometric distortion of the image. Reproduction when shooting with cameras with frosted glass or small format SLR cameras the crop and the tip of the lens for sharpness control the image produced on the frosted glass. When using rangefinder cameras for aiming of the lens for sharpness, apply a special attachment. In their absence, the framing and the focussing is carried out for marking drawing and installation data, ie the distance from the plane of the original image plane, the original size and the magnification.
Reproduction is possible with the help of a photographic enlarger. To do this, in his negativenatalie insert a sharp negative, and the photographic enlarger is set to the negative image on the screen was 3-5 mm larger than the original. Then, pointing the lens switch on the lamp of a photographic enlarger and replace the negative with a positive cut of the film, protected from light tape the black paper. After the necessary preparations, to include the time of exposure lamp illuminates the original. The size and shape of the cassettes depend on the design of negativemargins of the photographic enlarger. Shooting more original from a distance of more than 1 m can be produced by any medium - to small-format devices with a tripod or handheld. For shooting the original is fixed on the wall and illuminate symmetrically positioned lamps. For uniformity in lighting and check the exposure meter, measuring the light at multiple locations, and visual comparison of the shadows cast by the ruler or a pencil, installed in the center of the original, perpendicular to its surface. If the shadow from the pencil of the same density, the illumination of all of the original uniform. When reproducing any of the original lights needed to meet the challenges facing a photographer. Sliding, falling at a small angle light can emphasize the texture of the canvas or paint. For shooting graphics originals most suitable light incident at an angle of 20-50В° relative to the nearest side of the original. When reproduction not forget the fact that the flatness of the photographic material must be absolutely parallel to the plane of the subject, otherwise you may experience perspective distortions, to remove which, when printing, only partially.

"RONBO.RU" Moscow