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The use of optical means

Under the optical means used as an expressive means different lenses, the focal length of which is shorter or longer focal length normal lens for the proper perspective, the ordinary perception of space. Short throw lenses allow you to increase the angle of the image. Thus, the shorter the focal length of the lens, the greater the angle of the image. Using such lenses, the photographer has the ability to create so-called spherical perspective. It is the spectacular images depicting huge space. Short-focus lenses are used when shooting the scene when you want to pass the eye of a huge space.

Such lenses have the property to distort the objects, exaggerated perspective when different inclinations of the camera. These include unique lenses, called "fisheye", which gives coverage of the space by 180В°. Telephoto lenses, on the contrary, reduce the angle of the image and have a shallow depth of field. They are used if necessary to give a close-up object at a great distance from the survey points, zoom back to the front. Thus it is possible to achieve a feeling of confined in a small space. With a wide-angle lens to exaggerate the shape of the captured objects, creating one of the variants of the photographic grotesque. Photographic lenses differ not only in degree of angle, but the photographic picture. Soft-focus optics allows you to soften sharp transitions from light to shadow, to give the image a more scenic character. There are lenses that give sharp, tough image in a graphical manner.

Optical materials include various light and color filters.
There are filters that you can use to effects based on such physical phenomena as diffusion and diffraction. Diffraction filters to create the light pattern, the nature of which will depend on the configurations applied to the glass lines. Diffraction circle on the filter can turn the light source in the frame in solid, radiant glow spot or fireball that will depend on the distance between the drawn lines and the diffraction ring will create a light source around a beautiful halo. If the pattern on the diffractive lens will be in the form of a cross, the rays coming from the light source in the photo form a cross. Several intersecting point of lines will create a decorative photo frame effect beam. Similar drawings on the filter may be a few, but to get the desired effect, you need to visually combine the point of intersection of the marked lines with a light source. Diffusion filters can serve as gauze, tulle, nylon mesh, glass, oiled oily substance. Such filters, like blurring the light, create the feeling of a light haze enveloping the objects, or immersion of objects in the fog.

It is possible to combine on a single lens of diffusion and diffraction. For example, a part of the surface of the filter can be oiled fatty substance that'll happen diffusion of light, and the area may be applied crosswise of risk. Thus, the portion of the image on the photograph is shrouded in a fog, softening the harsh light and shadows, blur the contours of objects, and diffraction contrast cross oppose the diffusion fluctuation sharp bright rays, resulting from the decomposition of the light flux. Such compositions can convey the amazing state of nature, when the shining sunlight poured in fresh and humid air. Variations in the effects obtained by diffusion and diffraction of the lens, are entirely at the mercy of the imagination of the photographer. Compensation filters allow you to change the tone, lighten or pritisnite individual objects. The polarizing filter eliminates the glare in the photo, formed by the reflection of light from smooth surfaces, creating a muted black and white tones. Nd filter when shooting on location will prijemni bright color of the sky, color of vegetation will make it more intense.

Different processing techniques like negatives and positives in the laboratory, as well as a special printing technique images can be used as a means of expression. These include Solarize, pseudotolerance, threshold value, monochromes, obtaining a coarse image, blurred bas-relief, structural images, etc.

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